Comparison of STP, PVST & RSTP Protocols

Comparison of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol – STP
Per-VLAN  Spanning Tree Protocol-PVST
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Protocol – PVST+
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol – RSTP
Rapid Scanning Tree Protocol+ – RSTP+
·   Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a loop-prevention protocol used in the switching environment
·   It is an 802.1D  IEEE standard protocol
·   PVST is a type of multiple instances of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) in a switch. 

·   It is also IEEE standard protocol for grouping VLAN
·   This is an extension of the PVST standard. This allows interoperability between CST and PVST in Cisco Switches.

·   It is a Cisco Proprietary protocol
·   This is a single instance spanning tree protocol. It is developed by IEEE.
·    It is an 802.1W protocol developed by IEEE.
·   This is an extension of the RSTP standard. Developed by Cisco.
·   It is a Cisco proprietary as same as RSTP


STP is a technology that allows switches to communicate with each other to discover Physical loops in the network. The protocol uses an algorithm to create a loop-free logical topology.


Latency in receiving BPDUs often occurs in large Common Spanning Tree (CST) switched networks. Convergence time problems are common when there is a delay in receiving BDPUs. Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) is a CISCO solution for these problems. The Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) Is a Cisco proprietary Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) which operates a separate Instance of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) for each individual VLAN. A separate instance of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) for each VLAN helps the VLAN to be configured independently. By doing this, it can also perform better. Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) requires Inter-Switch Link (ISL)

Rapid Scanning Tree 
Also Read;

Three Major Problems That Solved by the Spanning Tree Protocol(STP)

What Are Switching Modes – All you Need to Know About it.

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree+ (PVST+) 

PVST allows in manually configuring the root bridge for a particular VLAN. Multiple Instance of STP reduces the latency and broadcast storms in a large switched network.

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is an IEEE 802.1w open standard which reduces the convergence time if there any topology changes in the network. STP take 30 to 50 seconds to transit from a clocking state to a forwarding state while RSTP responds in less than 10 seconds of any physical link failure. RSTP adds an alternative port and a backup port compared to the STP. The alternate port can become the root port if the primary root port fails. Also, the backup port can become the designated port if the primary designated port fails.

Rapid Per-VLAN Spanning Tree + (RPVST+)

Rapid Spanning Tree protocol + is a Cisco proprietary protocol, It is faster than PVST+ and finds the isolated instance of 802.1w per VLAN. It consumes more CPU and memory than other STP standards.
Looping – Loops may occur in a network for a variety of reasons. Loops also occur due to a configuration error that arises while creating redundant links